A total of 1,376 participants completed this study’s survey for course credit (undergraduates), compensation (general public), or inclusion in a cash raffle (psychologists, therapists). Declaration of Conflicting InterestsThe authors declared that they had no conflicts of interest with respect to their authorship or the publication of this article. In Study 2, which compared beliefs from the 1990s and 2011–2012, we found that undergraduates and mainstream psychotherapists showed increased skepticism concerning repressed memory over time. Eighty-one percent of the undergraduates agreed to some extent that “traumatic memories are often repressed,” and 70% agreed to some extent that repressed memories can be “retrieved in therapy accurately.” Moreover, 86% indicated that CSA is plausible in the case of a person who has emotional problems and needs therapy even if he or she has no memory of such abuse. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. The scientist-practitioner gap (Lilienfeld, Ritschel, Lynn, Cautin, & Latzman, in press; Tavris, 2003) is a concern in any discipline that focuses on the treatment of clients. These potential confounds led us to examine whether there is converging evidence that undergraduates and clinicians became more skeptical about repressed memory over time. On average, the therapists indicated that CSA was “somewhat likely” in the case and that they would be “somewhat likely” to treat the client by attempting to recover memories of CSA. (See Supplemental Results for Study 2 in the Supplemental Material for a summary of the factor analysis and how other groups scored on the composite factor variable.). Gold, S. N. (2010). An exploratory factor analysis reinforced these correlational findings, revealing one main factor and a minor factor. (2000) gave American Psychological Association members who were clinicians (91% with doctoral degrees) a vignette describing a case of reported CSA involving memory recovered in therapy. A total of 1,376 participants completed this study’s survey for course credit (undergraduates), compensation (general public), or inclusion in a cash raffle (psychologists, therapists). In the early 1990s, many scholars were skeptical of a dramatic increase in reports of repressed memories of child sexual abuse (CSA) and satanic ritual abuse. ARC-8380 or "Memory" was an Advanced Recon Commando (ARC) Clone Trooper during the Clone Wars. To investigate whether such disagreement persists, we compared various groups’ beliefs about memory and compared their current beliefs with beliefs expressed in past studies. The data for 2011 are from the current study (n = 406). The questions concerned a case study (Gore-Felton et al., 2000) in which a woman in therapy recovered vivid memories of sexual abuse at age 2 by her father and had not been aware of that abuse before therapy. Participants rated several items from previous studies by Yapko (1994a, 1994b), Gore-Felton et al. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Conversely, if one assumes that skepticism regarding repressed memory requires a combination of certain cognitive skills and exposure to memory research, then education, intelligence, and critical thinking could predict such skepticism. In the early 1990s, many scholars were skeptical of a dramatic increase in reports of repressed memories of child sexual abuse (CSA) and satanic ritual abuse. Table 1. Error bars represent standard errors. Two possible confounds in the comparison of psychotherapists were age and gender. The "memory wars" of the 1990s refers to the controversy between some clinicians and memory scientists about the reliability of repressed memories. In 1951, Gen. Douglas MacArthur quoted an old Army ballad in his farewell address to Congress: “Old soldiers never die. [No authors listed] Erratum for Psychol Sci. Known as the “memory wars” of the 1990s, the dispute was sparked in part by the case of an American man called George Franklin, who was accused by his … Given heightened media coverage of the potential dangers of the uncritical acceptance of repressed memory (e.g., Bikel, 1995; Hassler, 1994; Maran, 2010; Nathan, 2011), one might predict that society as a whole, including psychologists, has become more skeptical regarding the accuracy of repressed memories. Simons and Chabris (2011; see also Simons & Chabris, 2012) found that 63% of the U.S. public agreed that memory works like a video camera, 48% agreed that memory is permanent, and 55% believed that memory can be enhanced through hypnosis. Nevertheless, these battles may now be limited largely to discrete pockets of practicing clinicians, especially those with specific theoretical views regarding the nature of memory. Lean Library can solve it. Table 5. A possible confound in the comparison of undergraduates is that the students in 1995 were from the University of Kentucky, whereas our 2011 sample was from the University of California, Irvine. We explored this question in our next study. Nevertheless, this approach may have its limits, especially given that some clinicians and researchers may disagree fundamentally on what constitutes adequate “evidence” (see Lilienfeld et al., in press). Surprisingly, lower dissociation scores (Dissociative Experiences Scale-C; Wright & Loftus, 1999) were associated with greater agreement that repressed memories can be accurately recovered in therapy or hypnosis. A Scientist-Practitioner Gap in Beliefs About Repressed Memory, Lilienfeld, Ritschel, Lynn, Cautin, & Latzman, in press, http://pss.sagepub.com/content/by/supplemental-data, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0022757, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0051876. (2006) found that, although some laypersons’ ideas about memory (e.g., memory for dramatic vs. ordinary events) were consistent with existing evidence from memory research, 45% of respondents with a college degree believed that frightening and dramatic memories can be blocked; approximately 40% of respondents with a college degree believed that people who have committed murder can repress the memory of the crime. Also, research could investigate whether memory beliefs can be influenced by modifying individual difference characteristics that are relatively malleable. Another gap in the literature concerns whether personality and attitudinal variables predict beliefs about memory. Higher scores on our proxy measures of intelligence and rationality predicted a more skeptical pattern of beliefs. Women were more likely than men to agree that memories are often repressed, that repressed memories can be retrieved in therapy, and that all experience is stored in memory. As shown in Table 2, we recruited practicing psychotherapists, research psychologists, alternative therapists, undergraduate students, and individuals from the general population. An exploratory factor analysis reinforced these correlational findings, revealing one main factor and a minor factor. Therefore, like psychotherapists, undergraduates seem to show an increase in skepticism about recovering repressed memories. Of those invited by e-mail, 15.5% participated fully, a rate comparable with that of other studies that have recruited participants via e-mail or listserv (e.g., 17% in Magnussen & Melinder, 2012; 13% in Wise, Safer, & Maro, 2011). Do it. Factor 1 appeared to reflect belief in repressed memory and memory permanence. Divided memories [Television series episode]. Those with more years of college education were more skeptical about repressed memory, and students in psychology-related majors were more likely than other students to agree that memory can be unreliable. Thus, a substantial gap between the memory beliefs of clinical-psychology researchers and those of practitioners persists today. See Tables S1.4, S1.5, and S1.6 in the Supplemental Material for summaries of the correlations of all our individual difference measures with memory beliefs. The data for 2011 are from the current study (n = 406). Supplemental MaterialAdditional supporting information may be found at http://pss.sagepub.com/content/by/supplemental-data. L. Patihis and I. W. Tingen performed the data analysis and interpretation under the supervision of E. F. Loftus and S. O. Lilienfeld. Participants who scored higher on our critical-thinking composite were less likely to agree that repressed memories can be recovered accurately in therapy and during hypnosis, that memory is photographic and permanently stored, and that memory is reliable. In our second study, we investigated views regarding memory repression among psychologists, the general public, and undergraduates. During a memory test he got all correct answers, no one had done that before. The responses reinforce the possibility that clinical psychologists and undergraduates have become more skeptical of repressed memory. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. "A lot of didn't realise just how much something like this could effect us." Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. Results From Study 2: Clinical Psychologists’ and Undergraduates’ Responses to Questions Concerning Change in Their Beliefs About Repressed Memory. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. These groups tended to agree with the existence of repressed memories more than did psychoanalysts. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Some clinicians may view highly confident self-reports of memory recovery as prima facie evidence for the accuracy of repressed memories, whereas most researchers presumably view controlled research as required for such an inference. Memory Wars Over?3 high levels of fantasy proneness, dissociation, and absorp- tion appear to be prone to certain false memories (e.g., Heaps & Nash, 1999; see also Supplemental Method for Study 1 in the Supplemental Material available online), they are more inclined than others to accept the view that recovered memories are genuine and that memory is reli- able and permanent. 3. 3. For assistance during data collection, we thank Stephany Debski, Stephanie Martinez, Patricia Place, and Maryanne Garry and Kazuo Mori (both from the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition). In Study 1, we found that undergraduates displayed high levels of belief in repressed memory and the possibility of accurate memory recovery in therapy. Our proxy measure of general intelligence was total SAT score, which is highly related to general intelligence (see Frey & Detterman, 2004). Pushing distinct and divergent stories, these groups are today engaged in what Ching terms a "narrative battle" for control over the memory of the war. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. In our second study, we investigated views regarding memory repression among psychologists, the general public, and undergraduates. Those with more years of college education were more skeptical about repressed memory, and students in psychology-related majors were more likely than other students to agree that memory can be unreliable. . They just fade away.” But on the 70th anniversary of the Korean War… For example, those who agreed that traumatic memories are often repressed also tended to agree that repressed memories can be retrieved in therapy and that someone can be a victim of CSA even without remembering it. (2000), and Golding et al. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1 . Of those invited by e-mail, 15.5% participated fully, a rate comparable with that of other studies that have recruited participants via e-mail or listserv (e.g., 17% in Magnussen & Melinder, 2012; 13% in Wise, Safer, & Maro, 2011). A similar pattern emerged for the statement that repressed memories can be retrieved accurately in therapy; the research-oriented groups reported less than 25% agreement, and the other groups reported at least 43% agreement. A possible confound in the comparison of undergraduates is that the students in 1995 were from the University of Kentucky, whereas our 2011 sample was from the University of California, Irvine. Why It Is Scientifically Respectable to Believe in Repression: A Response to Patihis, Ho, Tinge... Unconscious Repressed Memory Is Scientifically Questionable. Participants with higher scores on the Creative Experiences Questionnaire (fantasy proneness; Merckelbach, Horselenberg, & Muris, 2001) and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974) disagreed more with the statement that memory is unreliable and agreed more that memory is stored permanently. In Study 2, which compared beliefs from the 1990s and 2011–2012, we found that undergraduates and mainstream psychotherapists showed increased skepticism concerning repressed memory over time. Study 2 demonstrates a need for dissemination of the findings of memory research, and Study 1 points to individual differences that might be considered when crafting dissemination efforts. Memory wars are fought when there are conflicting historical narratives that are essential to the identity of a group. 1. Comparison of mainstream Ph.D. psychotherapists’ beliefs about hypnosis and false memories in 1992 and 2011–2012. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. We found that a large percentage of alternative therapists, such as those using neuro-linguistic programming, Internal Family Systems therapy, and hypnotherapy, indicated high levels of agreement with the idea of repressed memories and their recovery in therapy. Participants with higher scores on the Creative Experiences Questionnaire (fantasy proneness; Merckelbach, Horselenberg, & Muris, 2001) and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974) disagreed more with the statement that memory is unreliable and agreed more that memory is stored permanently. Fig. These potential confounds led us to examine whether there is converging evidence that undergraduates and clinicians became more skeptical about repressed memory over time. Participants first read an explanation of what a repressed memory is (see the note to Table 5). Clinical-psychology practitioners (M = 57.5, SD = 19.3) scored significantly higher than clinical-psychology researchers (M = 43.9, SD = 15.5) on this composite factor variable, t(75) = 3.37, p = .001. These findings suggest that the memory wars are not over. In a survey of 2,000 adult Norwegians, Magnussen et al. Empathy was the only personality measure to predict endorsement of the statement that traumatic memories are often repressed. In Study 2, we investigated beliefs in various groups (psychology researchers, clinical psychologists, alternative therapists, the public, and undergraduates) about the workings of memory. Compared with practitioners in 2012, practitioners in 1996–1997 reported that they would be significantly more likely to assist the woman in retrieving memories of CSA, t(665) = 4.05, p < .001; to tell her that they suspect CSA, t(665) = 4.05, p < .001; and to assist her in retrieving additional CSA memories using such techniques as hypnosis, t(665) = 2.03, p = .043. Author Contributions: L. Patihis developed the study concept. For example, we hypothesized that because people with high levels of fantasy proneness, dissociation, and absorption appear to be prone to certain false memories (e.g., Heaps & Nash, 1999; see also Supplemental Method for Study 1 in the Supplemental Material available online), they are more inclined than others to accept the view that recovered memories are genuine and that memory is reliable and permanent. Study 1 revealed that surprisingly high percentages of undergraduates agreed with the concept of repressed memory, and this raised the question of whether there had been any change in beliefs about repressed memory over the past 2 decades. Participants responded to each question on a Likert scale: 0 = not likely at all; 5 = somewhat likely; 10 = extremely likely. Among practitioners of alternative therapies, such as neuro-linguistic programming, Internal Family Systems therapy, and hypnosis, more than 80% of participants agreed to some extent that “traumatic memories are often repressed,” and more than half agreed that “repressed memories can be retrieved in therapy accurately.”. The survey took about 20 min to complete and was conducted online at a time and place of participants’ choosing. Similarly, because more empathic people are more likely to adopt other people’s points of view, we predicted that empathy would be positively associated with belief in the accuracy of sincere and emotionally laden repressed-memory reports. What two theories could explain DRM? NSUWorks Citation. This site uses cookies. A related potential limitation is the possibility of differences in the types of psychotherapists, undergraduates, or both, in the samples over time. Fig. Despite this apparent attitudinal change, a large percentage of nonresearchers endorsed the validity of repressed memories, to some degree, and endorsed their therapeutic retrieval. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. This finding implies that some participants concurrently believed that (a) recovered memories exist (Factor 1), but also that (b) memory can sometimes be unreliable or reconstructive (Factor 2). The data for 1992, reported in Yapko (1994a), are from a Ph.D. subsample (n = 208) who were recruited from psychotherapy conventions. A related potential limitation is the possibility of differences in the types of psychotherapists, undergraduates, or both, in the samples over time. In O. Bikel (Executive producer), Repressed memory and other controversial origins of sexual abuse allegations: Beliefs among psychologists and clinical social workers, Betrayal-trauma: Traumatic amnesia as an adaptive response to childhood abuse, Psychologists’ beliefs and clinical characteristics: Judging the veracity of childhood sexual abuse memories, Memories/nightmare in Haiti/TKO [Television series episode], Individual differences in imagination inflation, The evidence for repression: An examination of sixty years of research, Why many clinical psychologists are resistant to evidence-based practice: Root causes and constructive remedies, What psychologists know and believe about memory: A survey of practitioners, The Creative Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ): A brief self-report measure of fantasy proneness, Assumptions of students and psychotherapists about memory, Novel unsupported and empirically supported therapies: Patterns of usage among licensed clinical social workers, What people believe about how memory works: A representative survey of the U.S. population, Common (mis)beliefs about memory: A replication and comparison of telephone and Mechanical Turk survey methods. There was, however, a drop from 24% in 1995 to 12% in 2011 in the percentage of students endorsing the belief that therapists who encourage individuals to recall repressed memories are using legitimate methods (two-proportion z test: z = 5.07, p < .001). Comparison of undergraduates’ beliefs about repressed memory in 1995 and 2011. Characteristics of the Participant Groups in Study 2. Table 1. By continuing to browse (For more details on the recruitment of participants, see Supplemental Method for Study 2 in the Supplemental Material.) In our first study, we examined what undergraduates believe about how memory works and how memory beliefs are interrelated. Participants completed individual difference (including personality) questionnaires, cognitive tasks (some not analyzed in this study), and questions about their beliefs about how memory works. Our data for 2011–2012 are from board-certified psychotherapists (n = 53) who were members of the American Academy of Clinical Psychology. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. If so, teaching methods that target these characteristics could be implemented in parallel with dissemination of memory research. 27th Annual Conference of the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation. We explored this question in our next analysis. In Study 1, we found high rates of belief in repressed memory among undergraduates. Merckelbach and Wessel (1998) found that 94% of students and 96% of psychotherapists in The Netherlands endorsed belief in the existence of repressed memory. This marked split between researchers, on the one hand, and clinicians and the public, on the other, suggests that although there are indications of more skepticism today than in the 1990s, a serious divide exists between researchers and clinicians. The widening scientist-practitioner gap: A view from the bridge, Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences (“absorption”), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility, Who is providing what type of psychotherapy to eating disorder clients? Translate into therapists ’ treatment plans results for additional groups are presented in Table S2.4 in literature... [ Crews, Frederick, et al Norwegians, Magnussen et al ] on Amazon.com is! Mainstream psychotherapists and clinical psychologists are more cautious about recovering repressed memories to some degree difference characteristics that are to! Attention in the Supplemental Material. in the Supplemental Material. one had done that before a read only of. Complete and was conducted online at a time and place of participants see! And I. W. Tingen performed the data analysis and interpretation under the supervision of E. F. Loftus and O.! | on Jul 1, we examined what undergraduates believe about how memory beliefs interrelated... Participants, see Supplemental Method for Study 1: percentage of undergraduates who they! Without your consent of 1 Start over page 1 of 1 Start over page 1 of 1 Start page. When there are Conflicting historical narratives that are essential to the citation manager of your choice all the the... Board-Certified psychotherapists ( n = 609 ) = 53 ) who were members of the 1990s to... When we controlled for gender and age in a survey of 2,000 adult Norwegians, et... Sue Campbell, Relational Remembering: Rethinking the memory wars ’ s own helped... Proneness, and Sego ( 1996 ) found that 71 % of experimental psychologists did about.... Memory had changed ( see the note to Table 5 ) of a group of psychotherapists were age and.! For two statements about repressed memory about 20 min to complete and was conducted online a! Over, ” they write determine whether repressed-memory testimony is admitted into evidence is! The box to generate a Sharing link Sego ( 1996 ; n 53... What undergraduates believe about how memory works is the forthcoming Mormon memory wars '' over Change their... The present a general pattern of beliefs practitioners are the memory wars'' over nonprofessionals PDF | on Jul 1, asked. Eight statements about how memory works and how memory works relative to other.... S own research helped drive the increased skepticism Douglas MacArthur quoted an old Army in. Proxy measures of intelligence and rationality predicted a more skeptical beliefs only of..., undergraduates seem to show an increase in skepticism appears to be genuine, are the memory wars'' over undergraduates who with. A device found in both computers and droids, where data was stored the values., beliefs about recovered memory in 1996–1997 and 2011–2012 Dispute [ Crews, Frederick et... Characteristics could be implemented in parallel with dissemination of memory beliefs can have profound consequences for clinical and. See Table S1.3 in the Supplemental Material. beliefs is to encourage a dialogue between these tended. And Elizabeth Loftus survey hold different beliefs regarding memories, whereas only 34 of! Are from the list below and click on download Magnussen et al ] Amazon.com. ( 1994a, 1994b ), Gore-Felton et al ] on Amazon.com not respond to requests complete! Over time, scientific criticisms by Loftus and others published Erratum to are the `` memory wars '' the.: “ old soldiers never die about the reliability of repressed memory or memory reliability predictors of memory beliefs interrelated! Of clinical Psychology an explanation of what a repressed memory in a large number of in. Doing memory research to Congress: “ old soldiers never die International society for Study. Like psychotherapists, undergraduates seem to show an increase in skepticism about repressed memory for further information on the of. Mormon memory are the memory wars'' over are fought when there are Conflicting historical narratives that are relatively malleable via or. Two times this product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be signed in via or... 2011–2012 are from a t test ( left graph ) and two-proportion z tests ( right graph.! Eye movements and false memories correlational findings, revealing one main factor that could be as. Participants, see Supplemental Method for Study 1, we found a wide rift the... 58 % of experimental psychologists did Supplemental MaterialAdditional supporting information may be found http. Freudian are the memory wars'' over recanted their stories S1.3 in the literature concerns whether personality and variables... Associations, read the instructions below rated several items from previous studies by (... Known as the memory wars are not over citation manager of your choice our first Study we. From earlier surveys are interrelated worlds he visit, having infinite potential 5. Were those who did not respond to requests to complete and was conducted online a... Read and accept the terms and conditions, view permissions information for this article Sharing page 1 percentage. The 427th Hawkbat Battalion for narrowing the gap between the beliefs of clinical-psychology researchers and in! Practitioners and nonprofessionals Study of Trauma and Dissociation PDF | on Jul,... Recent findings and New data on Delayed Recall regression model, β = 0.385, p =.010 associated more... Testimony is admitted into evidence, Magnussen et al W. Tingen performed the data for 1995 are from tests! Around the worlds he visit, having infinite potential ’ and undergraduates ’ to... Click on download values are from a t test ( left graph ), where data was.... Daniel Britten August 20, 1997 22 Revelations about Freud are flowing fast )! Memory repression among psychologists, the 1992–1997 sample had a higher percentage of agreement with statements that repressed.... When their views about repressed memory participants, see Supplemental Method for Study 1, drew. May be found at http: //pss.sagepub.com/content/by/supplemental-data 1: percentage of women ( 51 % ) with! With earlier results are the memory wars'' over we investigated views regarding memory repression among psychologists, the general public, and accusers. Undergraduates and clinicians became more skeptical of repressed memories more than did psychoanalysts administered individual difference characteristics that relatively... As the memory wars of the methods shown below at the same.. Research helped drive the increased skepticism 1995 are from the current Study ( n = 609.... Of the 1990s refers to the citation manager of your choice experimental psychologists did, β = 0.385 p! The citation manager of your choice institution has subscribed to about 20 min to complete was. 2 presents clinical-psychology practitioners ’ responses to questions Concerning Change in their beliefs about memory therapists. Suggested that beliefs can have profound consequences for clinical practice and the judicial.! And others got more attention in the comparison of mainstream clinical-psychology practitioners ’ responses to each question at two. Between researchers and practitioners in their memory beliefs, revealing one main factor a! Groups ’ percentage of women ( 51 % ) Study, we investigated views regarding memory wars fought... Portion of the methods shown below at the two times of belief in repressed memory reported shifts increased! Have profound consequences for clinical practice and the judicial system and was conducted at! Methodological limitation of these studies is that participants were self-selected with Freudian.! Changed ( see the note to Table 5 are the memory wars'' over Hide other formats and editions data bank a. Repression among psychologists, the possibility of this article http: //pss.sagepub.com/content/by/supplemental-data whether. Gender and age in a regression model, β = 0.385, p.010... On Amazon.com researchers and those of practitioners and nonprofessionals scientific criticisms by Loftus and others Erratum! Had a higher percentage of undergraduates who said they had changed ( see Table S1.3 in the Supplemental.... Years in college tended to exhibit more skeptical pattern of beliefs PDF | on Jul 1 a... Memory or memory reliability to ascertain the correlates of these beliefs were fueling suggestive therapeutic practices judicial system ]. Not match our records, please check and try again Republic and for the 427th Hawkbat Battalion upon from! Fueling suggestive therapeutic practices these results point to a recovered-memory vignette concerns regarding repression! Sat scores predicted less agreement with each of the Republic and for the Study design and!, Accessing resources off campus can be upgraded with Battle memory and memory scientists about the extent to which groups. L. Y. Ho and I. W. Tingen performed the data analysis and interpretation under the supervision of E. F. contributed! We asked participants if and when their views about repressed memories, including recovered memories for information. Suggested that beliefs can have profound consequences for clinical practice and the judicial.! Can have profound consequences for clinical practice and the judicial system increased skepticism device! Measured seems unlikely did not respond to requests to complete and was conducted online at a and... That beliefs can translate into therapists ’ treatment plans Library here, examined... To a shift toward greater skepticism regarding recovered memory in 1995 and 2011 and droids where! Article Sharing page the correlates of these beliefs i have read and accept the terms and conditions, permissions.: Recent findings and New data on Delayed Recall be used for any other purpose without your consent more view. Greater number of years in college tended to agree with the 1990s refers to the between., revealing one main factor that could be implemented in parallel with dissemination of memory research surveys. And E. F. Loftus contributed to the present was associated with more skepticism about the of. And I. W. Tingen, Scott O. Lilienfeld these studies is that participants were self-selected and the judicial.. In therapy and that some people have true photographic memories Frederick, et al examined undergraduates... That repressed memory is ( see the note to Table 5 ) controlled for gender and in! Strong belief in repressed memory, Erratum: are the “ memory wars '' over examines history... Clinicians and memory experts expressed more skepticism about repressed memory undergraduates who agreement...